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Menene Atom?
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Atom kalmar tasamo asali ne daga yaren mutanen kasar girka(Greece). Asalin kalmar ba Atom ake rubutawa ba. Asali a yaren greek 'Atomos' ake rubutawa. Tun kusan shekaru dubu biyu da dari biyar(2500yrs) da suka wuce, Atom yasamu wannan sunan.
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Wasu mutane biyu malami da dalibin shi suna zaune suna tattaunawa. Sai daya daga cikinsu yace misali yanzu wannan dutsen idan aka fasashi zakaga ya rugurguje yazama kanana kanana. Suma kowanne daga cikin kana nun nan idan aka fasa shi zaka samu wasu kana nun tsakuwa. Su ma tsakuwan idan aka fasa su zakaga wasu kana nun su, suma kana nun idan kafasa su haka zakaga wasu kana nan abubuwa.
Dandalin Kimiyya : Menene Atom?, atom in hausa
Dandalin Kimiyya : Menene Atom?

Haka sukaci gaba da tattaunawa har sai da sukazo inda idan kafasa abubuwan to zasu zama ba'a ganinsu. Sai daya daga cikinsu yace wannan kawai Atomos ne, wato yana nufin basa irguwa(uncountable). Wadannan abubuwan da basa irguwa wato Atomos dasu Allah yayi wannan dutsen.
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Anan Atom yasamu sunan shi. Atom abu ne kuma akwaishi, amma idon ka bazai iya ganin ko da kwaya dubu daya ba, saboda kan kantarsu. Zaka iya daukan Atom miliyon daya, amma bakasan ka dauka ba, saboda kan kantarsu.
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Atom wani abu ne wanda yake karami ne sosai. Saboda kan kantarsa ido baya iya ganin sa. Atom dashi ake hada duk wasu abubuwan dakake gani(building block of all matter). Ruwa da iska da hayaki da kasa da jini da fata da karfe da dalma da gishiri da mai da ganye da sauransu duk da Atom ake hadasu.
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Sai dai Atom din kala kalane, kowanne akwai inda ake amfani dashi a hada abu. Idan kanaso kasan yaya Atom yake, kasamo tsakuwa guda daya, sai kaje dakin binciken kimiya(Laboratory). Ka daura wannan tsakuwar a inda ake ajiye abu na microscope. Sai kaje wajen dubawa kasa idon ka kaleka zakaga wasu kana nun abubuwa sunfi biliyon daya. Wadannan abubuwan kanana ne sosai, kuma dasu akayi wannan tsakuwa.
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Wadannan abubuwan da kagani guda daya daga cikinsu shi ake kira Atom. Acikin akwai inda ake kira Nucleus wato tsakiyan Atom, da kuma shell ko orbit a kewaye dashi.
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Sassan Jikin Atom
1. Nucleus
2. Shell/Orbit
3. Proton(+)
4. Electron(-)
5. Neutron(0)
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Nucleus
Anan makamin kare dangi wato Nuclear weapon yasamo asalin sunan shi, saboda da shi ake hada gubar makamin. Nucleus shine tsakiyan Atom, kuma ya kunshi abubuwa guda biyu, wato proton da neutron. Proton yana da positive charge(+) yayin da neutron kuma bashi da charge(0). Saboda haka nucleus kenan yana da positive charge(+).
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Shell/Orbit
Shell ko Orbit ko ace Energy level shine yake kewaye da nucleus, shi kuma anan electron yake. Electron yana da negative charge(-) saboda haka gaba daya Atom neutral ne, wato bashi da charge saboda proton da electron sunyi balance. Electrons suna kewaye nucleus ne yayin da suke tafiya ko zagayawa(orbiting) akan shell ko energy level.
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Abun dayasa akace Atom neutral ne, bashi da charge, shine idan a nucleus na Atom akwai proton biyar, to neutron din ma zaka samu suma biyar ne, hakama electron biyar ne, kaga duka ukun nan kowane adadin yawansu daya ne. Saboda haka babu wanda ya rinjayi wani.
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Amma akwai wasu Atom din da zaka samu acikin nucleus nasu neutron da proton daya yafi daya yawa. Misali Atom na Uranium wanda akeyin amfani dashi wajen kera makamin nuclear da kuma samar da wutar lantarki, acikin nucleus nashi proton da neutron adadin su ba daya bane.
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Atom din da proton ko neutron daya yafi daya yawa su ake kira da unstable. Kaman yanda nafada abaya cewa da Atom ake hada kowane abu, tabbas haka abun yake.
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Atom in hausa, Dandalin Kimiyya : Menene Atom?
Dandalin Kimiyya : Menene Atom?

Atom biyu na Hydrogen da kuma Atom daya na Oxygen(H2O) dasu ake hada ruwan sha mai tsafta. Atom daya na Sodium da Atom daya na Chlorine(NaCI) dasu ake hada gishirin miya(table salt). Atom na Aluminium(Al) zalla dashi ake hada dalma. Hakama Iron(Fe) zalla ko Zinc(Zn) zalla dasu ake hada karfe. Cabon daya da Oxygen biyu(CO2) dasu ake hada iskar Carbondioxide. Atom daya na Calcium da daya na Carbon da Atom uku na Oxygen(CaCO3) dasu ake hada siminti(cement) wanda ake gina gidaje da gadoji da sauran aiyukan gine gine.
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Muna iya cewa gaba daya, ko mafi yawa tuwon da mukeci sun kunshi Carbon, da Hydrogen da kuma Oxygen. Kama daga Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids(fats and oil), vitamins, minerals da water(ruwa).
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Abubuwan dana bada misali nace ana kerasu da Atom, anayin hakanne ta hanyar chemical reaction. Atom din nan wasu suna nan kaman iska(gas), wasu kuma a dunkule suke(solid), wasu kuma ruwa ruwa(liquid) suke. Saboda haka bakowanne bane za'a iya gani da ido.
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Alhamdulillah nan shine karshen bayanin menene Atom. Kuna iya turawa wasu domin su karanta su samu karin haske akan abun da mukayi bayani.

RUBUTAWA
Dalibin Physics
Nura Mahdi Idris