Dandalin kimiyya : Sadarwar Satellite

Kaman yanda muka sani, ko kuma mukeji ana fada cewa a yau satellite yana bada gudunmuwa wajen sadarwar internet da gidajen talabijin, da binciken kimiyya akan sararin samaniya, da kuma harkar tsaro, da leken asiri da sauransu.

Da ikon Allah, yau zamu duba muga wadanne satellite ne suke wannan aikin, da kuma yanda suka zama hanyar samun makudan kudade ga kamfanonin da suke samar da sadarwar tashoshin talabijin da rediyo ta satellite.

Akwai abun da ake cewa Program Source wato tashoshin da ake iya ganin shirye shiyensu a satellite. Sai DBS Provider wadannan kuma sune uwa uba, domin suke bawa kowace tasha daman ana kallon shirye shiryenta a satellite.

Dandalin kimiyya : Sadarwar Satellite, kimiyyar sararin samaniya

Yanda abun yake shine, idan zaka bude gidan talabijin wanda mutanen duniya zasu kalla ta hanyar satellite, da farko zakaje wajen DBS Provider kaman hukumar kula da zuwa sarari ta Amurka wato National Aeronautical Space Agency, ko kuma NASA a takaice. Kayi magana dasu zaka bude tashar talabijin ko rediyo a satellite, sai kabiyasu, zasu samar maka da lambobin da za'a kama tasharka dasu.

Kai kuma daga nan sai kasamo na'urorin da zasuna aika shirye shiyen tasharka zuwa satellite dake can sama wanda ake kira Geosynchronous, ko kuma Geostationary satellite. Wannan satellite din irinsa guda uku ne suke kai sadarwa duniya gaba daya. Kuma tsakaninsu da doron kasa(altitude) akwai nisan kilomita dubu talatin da biyar da dari bakwai da tamanin da shida (35,756km) amma a takaice ana cewa kilomita dubu talatin da shida (36000km).

Yauwa, tasharka tana aika sakonta zuwa Geosynchronous satellite nan take shima zai dawo da wannan sakon zuwa doron kasa a DBS Provider na NASA. Misali, idan kaje gidan talabijin na NTA, ko kuma wani gidan talabijin dake garinku ko jaharku, zakaga wani bahon satellite mai girma yana kallon sama. Wannan satellite din shi ake kira DBS.

To acikin kamfanin DBS Provider akwai wadancan DBS satellite din masu daya. Kowane DBS yana daukan sakonnin tashoshi dari uku zuwa dari hudu (300-400 channels). Kada amanta muna maganane idan tasharka ta aika sakonta zuwa Geosynchronous satellite anan take zai dawo da sakon zuwa DBS Provider dake doron kasa. Daga nan zasu karbi sakon tasharka atake DBS dake nan doron kasa zai maida sakon zuwa Geosynchronous satellite dake can sama, amma anan ana samun lattin rabin second (0.5sec).

Shikenan duk wanda yakunna satellite nashi zai iya kama tasharka idan yasan lambobin da tasharka take kai. Duk tashar dakeso ana watsa shirye shiryen ta a satellite zatana biyan wani abu duk bayan wani lokaci, idan ba hakaba, za'a soketa. Da wannan ne sukuma wadancan kamfanonin DBP Provider suke samun kudin shiga.

Suma DBS Provider suna biyan kasashen su haraji. Sakonnin sadarwa na satellite wani haske da idon mutum baya iya gani, kuma sunansa Radiowaves. Radiowaves dayane daga cikin haske bakwai (electromagnetic radiation) wadanda kawai haske dayane idonmu yake iya gani, kuma shine visible light, amma sauran haske shidan idonmu baya iya ganinsu.

Wadannan hasken sune Radiowaves, da Microwaves, da Infrared, sai Visible Light, sai Ultraviolet Rays, da X-rays da Gamma Rays (?-rays). Wadannan hasken suna gudun mita miliyan dari uku duk second daya (3x10^m/s). Satellite kala uku ne. Na farko sune LEO, wato Low Earth Orbit, sai MEO wato Medium Earth Orbit, sannan GEO wato Geosynchronous Earth Orbit.

LEO ana samunsu daga nisan kilomita dari da sittin zuwa kilomita dubu biyu (160-2000km). LEO suna zagaye duniya a cikin sa'a daya da rabi (1hour, 30mins) kuma ana amfani dasu wajen sadarwar wayoyi da kananun gidajen rediyo da talabijin.

MEO kuma wadannan satellite din ana samunsu daga nisan kilomita dubu biyu zuwa dubu talatin da biyar da dari bakwai. Wadannan satellite din suna da wasu na'urori biyu wato Atomic clock da L Band Antenna da ake amfani dasu wajen leken asirin da harkokin sirri na wasu kasashe, da kuma gano gurare a doron kasa(GPS). GPS satellite suna nan a nisan kilomita dubu ashirin da dari biyu (20,200km), sannan suna zagaye duniya acikin sa'a sha biyu (12hours).

Dandalin kimiyya : Sadarwar Satellite, fasahar sadarwa

GEO wadannan gaba daya su uku ne kuma bayaninsu mukeyi a yanzu. GEO satellite suna daukan sa'a ashirin da uku da minti hamsin da shida sa second hudu (23hours, 56minutes, 4 seconds) kafin su gama orbiting daya. A takaice GEO satellites saurinsu dayane da saurin duniyar da muke ciki (Earth) kwana daya ba 24hours bane, a takaice ne ake cewa 24hour, amma a zahirance 23hrs, 56mins, 4secs. Wato 24hours babu mintu uku da second hamsin da shida(3mins, 56seconds).

GEO satellite suna aiki na tsawon shekaru goma zuwa shabiyar daga nan suna iya konewa kokuma sufado cikin teku. Bari mutsaya anan sai kuma wani bayanin nan gaba.

Rubutawa
Nura Mahdi Idris