Dandalin Kimiyya Dandalin kimiyya : International Space Station

Dandalin kimiyya : International Space Station

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Dandalin kimiyya : International Space Station.

International Space Station ko kuma ISS a takaice, tashace amma acikin sararin samaniya wanda kasashen da suka cigaba a fannin kere kere da fasaha suka hada ta. ISS itace abu mafi girma wanda dan Adam yakera, kuma yake aiki acikin sararin samaniya. ISS tana da nisan kilomita dari hudu tsakanin ta doron kasa, saboda haka tana Low Earth Orbit wato LEO a takaice.

ISS tashace wanda akwai dakin binciken kimiya acikinta, wanda mutane shida suke iya aiki aciki. An harbata (launching) cikin sarari tun 20 ga watan November na shekarar 1998, wato yau sama da shekaru ashirin da ƴan watanni tana aiki a sararin samaniya. Kuma ana tsammanin zata kara shekaru goma sha daya anan gaba, wato zata kai 2030 tana aiki.

DUBA KUMA : Dandalin kimiyya : Menene solar system

Ba ISS bace space station na farko, kafin ita, taraiyar Soviet karkashin jagorancin kasar Rasha (Russia) sun hada space station mai suna Mir – wanda bayan shekaru kadan yakama da wuta yafado acikin teku. Mir yafara aiki a 1986, kuma yana iya daukan mutum uku ne kawai, kafin yasamu matsalar gobara yafado a 2001. A shekarar 1990 dan Jarida daga kasar Japan mai suna Toyohiro Akiyama, yakai ziyara Mir, wanda hakan yabude hanya ga masu sha’awar yawon bude ido zuwa sararin samaniya.

Skylab shine dakin binciken kimiya na farko wanda kasar Amurka (US) ta kera, kuma ta harbashi cikin sarari a 1973. Wannan dakin binciken dake cikin sarari yasamu taimakon kudi da kayan aiki daga gwamnatin Amurka, da sauran cibiyoyin zuwa sararin samaniya na duniya.

Ma’aikatan da suke cikin dakin binciken dake cikin ISS ana aika musu ruwa da abinci da iskar numfashi (oxygen) daga kasashen Rasha da Amurka, domin sune kanwa uwar gami a wannan tafiya. Wani lokacin kuma ruwan recycling nashi ake, wato idan suka sha ruwan sukayi fitsarinsa sai asa wasu sinadarai a tace shi, sai su sake amfani dashi.

ISS yana da wasu hannaye kaman na mutum – amma sunfi hannayen mutum girma da karfi. Wadannan hannayen suna da yawa kuma kowane hannu amfaninsa daban ne da dan uwansa. Misali akwai hannun da aikinsa kawai idan an harbo mutum daga wannan duniyar yana karasowa kusa dashi, nan take wannan hannun zai kamo kumbon da mutum yake ciki ya sakashi awajen da yakamata ya tsaya.

ISS yana samun wutar lantarkine daga hasken rana (solar), kuma cikinsa akwai batura dayawa (batteries) masu karfi sosai, wadanda lokacin da ISS yake kewaye duniya idan duniya ta rufe masa hasken rana nan take zasu fara aiki, rashin wuta zaisa yafado – kuma idan yafado anyi babbar asara, saboda yaci kudi sama da dala biliyan dari ta Amurka.

Manyan hukumomin zuwa sarari na duniya wato NASA (America), da Roscosmos (Russia), da JAXA (Japan), da ESA (European Space Agency), da CSA (Canada) sune suka hadu suka hada ISS. Ga sunayen kasashen Amurka (US), da Canada, da Japan, da Brazil, da hukumar kula da sarari ta taraiyar turai (European Space Agency) wacce take da wakilcin kasashe goma sha shida, kasashen sune Burtaniya (United Kingdom), da France, da Germany, da Belgium, da Italy, da Holland (Netherlands), da Denmark, da Norway, da Spain, da Switzerland, da Sweden, sai kuma Russia da sauransu.

Tashar ISS ana amfani da ita ne domin bincike akan abun daya shafi sarari, da taurari, da duniyoyi, da yanayi da sauransu. A Amurka tashar ISS ana samun sadarwa da ita a Mission Control dake Houston, da Texas, da New Mexico a antena mai tsayin kafa sittin (60-foot antenna). Sauran kasashen ma suna da irin wannan tsarin domin samun tattaunawa da wakilansu da suke can suna bincike.

DUBA KUMA : Dandalin kimiyya : Menene solar system

Tashar ISS tana zagaye duniya gaba daya a cikin minti casa’in da biyu da digo sittin da tara ko kuma minti casa’in da uku a takaice (93minutes). ISS tana gudun kilomita bakwai da digo sittin da shida duk dakika (7.66km/s) daidai da tafiyar kilomita dubu ashirin da bakwai da dari shida duk sa’a daya (27,600km/h) ko kuma mile dubu sha bakwai da dari daya duk sa’a daya (17,100mph). ISS tana da tsayin mita saba’in da biyu da digo takwas (72.8m) daidai da tsayin kafa dari biyu da talatin da tara (239ft), da kuma fadin mita dari da takwas da digo biyar (108.5m) daidai da kafa dari uku da hamsin da shida (356ft).

Rubutawa
Nura Mahdi Idris

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